# Introap Calculus

BHS -> Mr. Stanbrough -> AP Physics Intro -: this page

- Intro To Ap Calculus Ab
- Intraop Calculus Examples
- Intro To Ap Calculus
- Intraop Calculus Pdf
- Intraop Calculus Example

## Introduction

We hope your visit has been a productive one. If you're having any problems, or would like to give some feedback, we'd love to hear from you. For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums. This video will give you a brief introduction to calculus. It does this by explaining that calculus is the mathematics of change. A couple of examples are. And I hope these highlights of calculus will be helpful. I started the project this year, because the linear algebra lectures which were in class have been watched by a lot of people on OpenCourseWare. And so I looked at what there was for calculus. And I saw two or three types of things. One was lectures, sort of very serious, too mathy.

- Test #7 – Areas and Integrals - Practice Problems Name Advanced Placement Calculus. Honigs Multiple Choice Section (Weight = 50%) Circle the letter of the most appropriate choice for each multiple choice item.
- AP Calculus exam information dates and time: The exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long. The AP Calculus exam has 2 sections, multiple choice and free response sections. Note: You do now allow taking both AP Calculus AB and Calculus BC exam within the same year.You need a Graphical calculator for this exam.

Advanced Placement Physics at Batesville High School is a 1-year, 4-cycle course (88 85-minute periods) which follows the AP 'C - Mechanics' curriculum. It is a college-level, calculus-based (see below) course in classical mechanics.

(Please visit the Official Advanced Placement Physics Web site for information on the official AP curriculum, the AP test, and policies.)

## Philosophy of the Course

I'm pretty sure that if we eliminated all lab time and sat in lecture all period - every period - we could almost (but not quite) 'cover' the Physics B Curriculum or squeeze in the Physics C - Electricity & Magnetism material in the time we have available. No student would understand a bit of it, but I, at least, would have fun.

So, instead of a 'whirlwind tour or everything of interest in Physics' we will try to understand a limited amount well and in depth. We then have adequate time for labs, projects, and problem-solving-strategy sessions, as well as some review before the AP Test.

The text we use is:

Tipler and Mosca, Physics for Scientists and Engineers - Fifth Edition (Volume 1), published by W. H. Freeman and Company, New York

This is a calculus-based physics text. Differential and integral calculus concepts and techniques are used throughout the course, because just about every physics concept is defined in terms of calculus, and calculus is a powerful mathematical tool. If you are concurrently enrolled in AP Calculus, you will find that AP Physics and AP Calculus complement each other in many ways. (Since I am also your AP Calculus teacher, I can guarantee it!)

## For Students Not Also Enrolled in AP Calculus:

If you are *not* also taking AP Calculus this year, you may be saying “Oh, oh…”. Well, there is good news. First, though, the bad news: you *will *have to learn some basic calculus concepts and techniques to be successful in AP Physics. Now for the good news:

- You will be able to pick up the basic calculus concepts that you need (the derivative and the integral) from class discussions, assignments, activities, labs, and, of course, the text.
- The basic calculus techniques that you need to master (taking derivatives and evaluating integrals of simple functions) are easy (Really!) and not numerous. Mastering these techniques will require a few extra sessions (before school, after school, or flex) at a couple of points in the course and some additional practice on your part.
- Your TI-89 calculator is a powerful tool for learning calculus concepts and techniques.
- The majority of the physics problems that you will face this year in AP Physics are algebra-based, not calculus-based.

So, the moral of the story is that in order to do well in AP Physics, you must have some basic calculus skills, but acquiring those skills is very “do-able” if you are willing to work. After all, if you aren’t willing to work, you shouldn’t be here in the first place!

## Success in AP Physics

Success in the AP Physics course (and on the AP Physics Test) depends on your ability to:

- solve quantitative (numerical and symbolic) problems with and without a calculator,
- design and carry out an organized laboratory experiment, and,
- clearly, competently, and concisely explain physics concepts (verbally and in writing).

## The Advanced Placement Physics Test

The AP Physics C-Mechanics test will be given in the afternoon of Monday, May 11, 2009. The test consists of two sections, each of which is 45 minutes in length. The first section consists of 35 multiple-choice questions. Calculators are **not permitted** for the multiple-choice section. The second section consists of 3 free response questions, for which calculators **are permitted**.

The state of Indiana pays the $82 cost of the AP exam for students who successfully complete an AP course.

## AP Physics Grades at BHS

At BHS, each student receives 3 grades for each course - an achievement/academic grade, an effort grade, and a conduct grade. Here is how these grades are earned in AP Physics:

### Achievement/Academic Grade

The academic grade is the numerical (95-100 = A, 88-94 = B, etc.) grade.

**In AP Physics, a student's achievement grade represents a snapshot of that student's performance relative to the course standards at a particular point in time. In other words, the academic grade summarizes the summative assessments in the course. **

The student's grade reflects their academic achievement at a particular time in the course. It does **not** reflect how hard (or how little) they try - that is the task of the effort grade. It does **not** reflect the fact that they are a wonderful (or horrid) person - that is the task of the conduct grade.

The academic grade has three components:

**Assignments and Lab Reports:**There will be frequent (daily) written assignments in AP Physics which will be collected and scored on an acceptable (2 points) or unacceptable (1 or 0 points) basis. Lab books will also be collected and evaluated in detail each week.**Quizzes:**There will be frequent (approximately three per week) quizzes, counting generally between 5 and 20 points. Quizzes are not generally announced in advance - students should expect a quiz every day. Quizzes differ from tests in that they are partly formative -**students have the option to retake a quiz IF AND ONLY IF THEIR ASSIGNMENTS ARE UP TO DATE**. The second quiz score replaces the original score.**Test Grades:**There will be two tests during each 4 1/2-week cycle - one near the midpoint of the cycle, and the other near the end of the cycle. Each test will mimic the format of the AP Physics test (except for length), with a multiple-choice section and a free-response section. One test during each cycle will be a calculator-active test and one test will be a no-calculator test. Each test will count 100 points. Test dates are announced several days in advance.

**Final Exam and Final Grade:**

The final grade for each semester will be the average of the two cycle grades. There will be **no** additional final exam (pending administration approval).

**Grading Scale:**

Many of the questions that will appear on quizzes and tests will be taken from old AP exams and materials. The rest will attempt to be AP-level questions. AP-level questions are designed to be * very* challenging for a knowledgeable and talented student, as opposed to 'normal' test questions which are generally designed so that a capable student will answer almost all questions successfully. In fact, AP literature states that a 50% score can result in an acceptable (passing = '3') grade on an AP exam, and approximately 70% of the total points will generally qualify a student for the highest possible score (a '5') on the AP test. Therefore,

**AP Physics test and quiz scores will not adhere to the 95% = A, 88% = B official BHS grading scale**. AP Physics test and quiz scores will be 'curved' and converted to the BHS scale for posting to the grade book and report card. Up-to-date grade information will be posted in the classroom (by student number) so that students can gauge their progress.

### Effort Grade:

If a student's academic performance is good, then the effort that they expend must be considered at least adequate. If a student's academic performance is below standards, then his/her effort in the course needs to be examined - it may or may not be a contributing factor in their lack of academic success.

Near the end of each cycle, the student will have the opportunity to complete a simple self-assessment of his/her effort in the course. If the instructor concurs with the student's assessment, the student's evaluation becomes the effort grade.

If the student and instructor differ in their evaluation, a short conference will be held in order to reach a consensus. If the student and teacher cannot agree on an effort grade, the opinion of an objective third party will be sought.

### Conduct Grade:

A conduct grade will be assigned by the instructor based on the student's behavior in class.

## Policies:

### Make Up Work:

Students are responsible to make up all work missed due to field trips, illness, etc. within a reasonable time. Please consult your BHS Student handbook.

### Extra Credit:

AP Physics grades will be awarded based on the student's demonstrated achievement in physics. Students who want to do well in AP Physics need to keep up with the work, ask questions, and take advantage of the help available. Students are encouraged to work on a project of interest to them, either in addition to or instead of the regular class work. On the other hand (Sorry, I just can't find a nice way to say this ..), students who sit in class like big dead lumps for four weeks and then suddenly become concerned about their grade the day before the end of the cycle will **not** be able to turn in meaningless 'extra credit' whose only purpose is to artificially 'pump up' the grade they have earned.

### Machine-Scored Answer Sheets:

**Rationale:** The multiple-choice section of the AP test is scored by machine - no human ever looks at it. So is the SAT, and many other important tests that you have taken and will take in the future. On these tests, any mismarked answers, incomplete erasures, stray marks, etc. are counted wrong - just as wrong as an incorrect answer. Therefore, it would be a good idea to learn to mark machine-scored answer sheets *carefully*.

**Policy:** If the Scantron^{TM} machine says an answer is wrong - it's wrong. The only exception is if the machine is clearly out of order (which seldom happens).

Unlike the AP Test or SAT, however, if you 'mess up' your answer sheet, you ** can** have another one - just ask.

### Classroom Computers:

**The classroom computers are to be used for school-related curricular work only**. They are ** not** to be used for web surfing, email, or games during classroom hours.

**are they to be used to visit chat rooms or pornographic sites. Violation of this policy**

*At no time***result in disciplinary action.**

*will*## Help

AP-level work is challenging - even for the most talented students. **Students - even very capable students - who will not ask questions or seek help with difficulties should not expect to do well in an AP course.**

There will be an AP Physics/Calculus help session every morning (even 'off cycle') Monday-Friday 7:40 AM - 8:00 AM in Room F109 (unless I have another meeting - check the class calendar, bulletin board, or ask). Additionally, help is available during 'flex' period and after school. I do not mind phone calls at home - before 9:00 P.M.

## Miscellaneous

Please read:

BHS -> Mr. Stanbrough -> AP Physics Intro -: this page

last update September 19, 2008 by JL StanbroughBy M. Bourne

### Later, on this page..

Calculus is concerned with comparing quantities which vary in a non-linear way. It is used extensively in science and engineering since many of the things we are studying (like velocity, acceleration, current in a circuit) do not behave in a simple, linear fashion. If quantities are continually changing, we need calculus to study what is going on.

## Founders of Calculus

Gottfried Leibniz

1646-1716

Calculus was developed independently by the Englishman, Sir Isaac Newton, and by the German, Gottfried Leibniz. They were both working on problems of motion towards the end of the 17th century. There was a bitter dispute between the men over who developed calculus first.

Because of this independent development, we have an unfortunate mix of notation and vocabulary that is used in calculus. From Leibniz we get the `dy/dx` and `int` signs, which you will come across later.

The development of an accurate clock in the 17th century led to significant developments in science and mathematics, and amongst the greatest of these was the calculus. Office staff.

For scientists, it was very important to be able to predict the positions of the stars, to help **in maritime navigation**. The greatest challenge was to determine longitude when a ship was at sea. Whichever nation could send ships to the New World and successfully bring them back laden with goods, would become a rich country.

## Early application of calculus

**volume of wine barrels**was one of the problems solved using the techniques of calculus. See a solution at Volumes by Integration.

Newton and Leibniz built on the algebraic and geometric work of Rene Descartes, who developed the Cartesian co-ordinate system, which we met before.

There are two main branches of calculus.

The first is **differentiation** (or **derivatives**), which helps us to find a rate of change of one quantity compared to another.

The second is **integration**, which is the reverse of differentiation. We may be given a rate of change and we need to work backwards to find the original relationship (or equation) between the two quantities.

## Interactive Applet: Calculus Concepts by First Principles

See some of the basic ideas of calculus by exploring this interactive applet:

## Calculus in Action 1

**Solar Two **sustainable

energy project in California.

A power tower produces electricity from sunlight by focusing thousands of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, on a single receiver sitting on top of a tower. The receiver captures the thermal energy of the sun and stores it in tanks of molten salt (to the right of the tower) at temperatures greater than 500 degrees centigrade.

When electricity is needed, the energy in the molten salt is used to create steam, which drives a conventional electricity-generating turbine (to the left of the tower).

Calculus (in this case, differentiation) is used to **maximise** the efficiency of the process.

## Calculus in Action 2

Calculus is used to improve the efficiency of hard drives and other computer components.

Now let's move on to the calculus chapters.

## Differentiation

The 3 sections on differentiation in Interactive Mathematics are as follows:

- Differentiation, which introduces the concept of the derivative and gives examples of the basic techniques for differentiating.
- Applications of Differentiation, where we see some basic applications, including finding tangents, curvlinear motion and optimisation problems.
- Differentiation of Transcendental Functions, where we learn how to find derivatives of functions like sine, cosine, logarithm and exponential.

## Integration

## Intro To Ap Calculus Ab

The 3 sections on integration in Interactive Mathematics are as follows:

- Integration, where we learn the concepts of integration.
- Applications of Integration, where we see some basic applications, including finding areas and volumes, centroids, moments of inertia, electric charge and average value. See also Archimedes and the area of a parabolic segment, where we learn that Archimedes had a good grasp of concepts behind calculus, 2000 years before Newton and Leibniz!
- Methods of Integration, which shows more advanced techniques for finding advanced integrals.

## Intraop Calculus Examples

## Advanced Calculus

Don't miss the Higher Calculus section which contains more advanced techniques, and very interesting applications.

## Intro To Ap Calculus

## Vietnamese translation

## Intraop Calculus Pdf

Go here for a Vietnamese translation of IntMath calculus.